How many women have not asked this question before? Just a single sex without using effective contraception for women is about risk of pregnancy. In this paper we will address the early signs of pregnancy and what are the best tests for diagnosis.
Pregnancy Test / Diagnosis of pregnancy
The most reliable method to diagnose pregnancy is through a blood sample of a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). As we often measure only the fraction of beta hCG blood test used to diagnose pregnancy is called beta hCG (BhCG).
Symptoms of pregnancy
Beta hCG levels begin to rise with just eight days after fertilization, just after implantation of the zygote (sperm + egg) in the uterus.
What hCG beta values indicate pregnancy?
Beta hCG values below 5 mIU / ml are permanent and can mean very early pregnancy, when there has not been time for the hormone produced is enough to be detected in the blood. In these cases, repeat the test after three days.
Values above 25 mIU / ml are positive and indicate an ongoing pregnancy.
During the first thirty days, the value of hCG beta almost doubles every 24-48 hours, rising to 150,000 mIU / ml at week 10 of gestation. After that, its value falls, stabilizing at around 10,000 mIU / ml.
Beta hCG is measured in the laboratory through a blood test. Most women, however, prefers more comfortable methods that can be done at home without the need for blood collection needles. Therefore, from the 1970′s are home pregnancy tests, the famous pregnancy tests sold in pharmacies. Are just two films that detect the presence of beta hCG in urine.
Since the levels of beta hCG in urine are lower than in blood, pregnancy tests from the pharmacy take a little longer to be positive. While the beta hCG blood may be positive from the first day of menstrual delay, tests with urinary hCG beta are better when done after a week or two late, to avoid false negatives. The more time passes after conception, the greater the level of blood BhCG and consequently urine. After two weeks of failure in the menstrual period, the sensitivity of pregnancy tests pharmacy reaches 99%.
In general, you can make the pharmacy pregnancy test from the first day of menstrual delay, however, take into account the risk of a false negative result by the precocity of the examination. Therefore, if drug testing done on short menstrual delay is negative, it is necessary to repeat after a week, if that menstruation continues backward, of course.
Other methods to diagnose pregnancy
In more advanced pregnancies can identify the gestational sac (structure that houses the embryo) from the 5 th week of pregnancy by transvaginal ultrasound or from Week 7 through abdominal ultrasonography.
Incredibly, some women seek diagnosis only after the later stages of pregnancy. Sometimes the pregnancy is so obvious that get identified through physical examination. With twelve weeks, the uterus begins to be evident and after 20 weeks and we can identify the fetal heartbeat with a stethoscope and feel your movements through abdominal palpation.
Early diagnosis of pregnancy is important to start prenatal care immediately. In addition to controlling blood pressure and glucose levels, recognition of a pregnancy is important to avoid ingestion of alcohol and drugs that may be harmful to the fetus. It is always good to remember that the proper use of contraceptives confers protection efficiency above 99%. If you take the pill correctly, the chances of getting pregnant are slim to none.
Symptoms of pregnancy
a) Delay menstrual
The most obvious symptom of pregnancy is the menstrual delay. All women of childbearing age, sexually active, with delay in the menstrual period more than a week, you should consider pregnancy.
However, not all women are able to easily identify a delay in menstruation. There are women with irregular ovulatory cycles, sometimes staying up to two months without menstruating. Another problem is the fact that some pregnant women have smaller cyclical bleeding in the first months of pregnancy, which suggests that this is just a weaker period. There is also the possibility of a small amount of bleeding during implantation of the embryo in the uterine wall. This implantation occurs usually ten to fourteen days after fertilization, about the time when menstruation should arrive, which can also cause confusion.
b) Nausea and vomiting
A classic symptom of pregnancy is nausea and vomiting during the 6 th and 12 th week of gestation. The table tends to be worse in the morning and improves throughout the day. Nausea can last up to 20 weeks of pregnancy.
To learn more about nausea during pregnancy, read: NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN PREGNANCY.
c) sore and swollen breasts
The beta-hCG and increased estrogen and progesterone cause a stimulation of the mammary glands, leading to an increase in breast volume, local pain and darkening of the nipple. In some women these changes occur early, while others only notice the changes in the breast after several weeks of menstrual delay.
More common in the first trimester, fatigue is probably caused by increased levels of progesterone. Women who practice exercise regularly begin to notice a decrease in resistance, not tolerate the same amount of exercise they did formerly. Sedentary women may tire with small efforts, such as climbing stairs or wash some dishes.
e) Frequent urination
Frequent urination, usually associated with sleep disruption and the need to get up at night to go to the bathroom (or service) is common. This is due to alterations of the renal system, mainly by increasing the excretion of sodium (salt).
f) Other common symptoms of pregnancy
- Wishes and food aversions.
- Change of mood.
- Intestinal constipation.
- Low back pain.